Opening is the first management link in the field of black fungus, and it is also a more important technical link, which is related to the implementation of the two key technical measures of germination and ear emergence. To this end, the following technical points are proposed for the reference of growers.
At present, there are mainly three kinds of opening mouth shapes: "Y", "O" and "I" shape. Considering the difficulty of management and the effect of germination, it is recommended that farmers who lack management experience choose a "Y" or "O"-shaped opening when the bacteria stick is opened, so that the problem of sprouting is not easy to occur. Farmers with rich management experience can use the "I"-shaped mouth, with small ears, high single-piece rate, and good product commerciality. Growers should choose the opening mouth shape that suits them according to the actual situation.
Number of openings
It is more suitable for 200-220 openings per bag of 16cm × 33cm (folding width × length, the height of the material column is about 18cm). Therefore, the cutter wheel of the opening machine should be installed in 16-18 rows to meet the requirements of the number of openings. The number of openings determines the output of black fungus and the size of the ear pieces. If the number of openings is too small, the number of ear outlet points is too small, and the nutrients in the fungus stick cannot be fully utilized and transformed; if the number of openings is too large, the distance between the ear openings is too close, the ear pieces are easy to stick together, and the nutrition is too scattered, resulting in a decrease in the quality of the ear pieces.
In order to take into account the quality of the ear pieces and the difficulty of management, it is recommended that growers choose an aperture of 4-6mm. The opening machine can be installed with a cutter head with a diameter of 4-6mm. The larger the aperture, the easier it is for ear buds to grow, but the root of the ear will become larger and affect the shape of the ear. The smaller the aperture, the smaller the ear root will grow, but the management requirements are high.
Generally, the depth of the opening is controlled at 3-5mm, so that fresh air can enter the culture material to stimulate the differentiation of primordium and the formation of ear buds. When opening, the bacterial bag and bacterial membrane must be penetrated, but not too deep, otherwise it will easily cause the problem of slow ear bud formation.