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2022-01-12 15:34:59

High-yield and high-efficiency cultivation technology of organic straw mushroom

Straw mushroom is a typical high-temperature and high-humidity edible fungus. It takes more than one month for artificial cultivation from stockpiling to the end of fruiting. It is the type with the highest temperature requirement and the shortest growth cycle among the currently cultivated edible fungi.
Cultivation raw materials
Cottonseed husks, waste cotton, wheat straw, straw, corn cobs, corn stalks, peanut shells and materials after cultivation of oyster mushrooms can be used. To use dry, mildew-free fresh raw materials.
Culture preparation and fermentation
1. The culture material mainly consists of waste cotton residue or cottonseed husk.
Immerse the waste cotton residue in lime water, add 5 kg of lime water to every 100 kg of waste cotton residue, pick it up after soaking and make a pile, cover it with film and ferment for 2 days, the water content is about 70% (for grasping, there are a small amount of water droplets in the fingers Before entering the room, add an appropriate amount of lime to adjust the pH value to about 9.
2. The culture material is mainly wheat straw.
The culture material is 100 kg of wheat straw, 10 kg of bran, and 4 kg of lime.
For wheat straw fermentation and disinfection, firstly, cut the wheat straw into pieces 10-20 cm long, soak it in lime water with a concentration of 3% for 24 hours, so that the wheat straw can penetrate the water and become soft. Or spread 1 layer of wheat straw, sprinkle 1 layer of lime, and step on it while spraying water to make a stockpile with a width of 1.5 meters, a height of 1 meter and an unlimited length. After the pile is built, it is covered with plastic film for heat preservation and moisture preservation, and pre-wet fermentation is carried out. When the heap temperature rises to 60℃, keep it for 24 hours, turn the heap and move it into the mushroom shed. The second is to move the fermented wheat straw into the mushroom shed and build a pile with a height of 1 meter, a width of 1 meter, and an unlimited length. When building the pile, press tightly to help lift the temperature. After building the pile, make up the water, close the doors and windows, and use the radiant heat of the sun and the pile temperature to raise the temperature of the mushroom shed to 60 ° C and maintain it for 10 hours. Then, cover the top of the mushroom shed with shading and strengthen ventilation, so that the temperature of the pile in the shed is lowered to 48-52 °C for 24 hours, and the bed is made when there is no ammonia smell. Bed making is to spread the fermented and sterilized wheat straw on the bed to form a turtle-back shape with a high center and a low periphery. The center material is 20 cm thick, and the surrounding material is 15 cm thick. Soak) and lime powder, and spray enough water to make the water content reach 75% and the pH value is 9-10.
3. Secondary fermentation of culture material.
After the culture material is moved into the mushroom house, spread it on the nutrient rack. The thickness of the wheat straw culture material is 15-18 cm, and the thickness of the waste cotton residue culture material is 5-10 cm. The material on the upper layer of the bed frame can be thinner, and the following layers can be omitted Thicker, so that the material temperature of each layer is uniform, which is conducive to the growth of mycelium. After the culture material is leveled and slightly compacted, the doors and windows are closed, and steam is introduced for secondary fermentation, so that the temperature of the material reaches 65°C, maintained for 4 to 6 hours, and then cooled. Open doors and windows for ventilation when the material temperature drops to about 45°C, and sow seeds when it drops to about 36°C.
sowing
Use 500 grams of bacteria per square meter. When the material temperature of the bacterial bed is lower than 40 °C and there is no ammonia smell, 50% of the bacterial species are sown in the hole seeding method, and the remaining bacterial species are sown on the surface of the bacterial bed culture material and compacted with a wooden board to make the bacterial species and cultured. material is tight.
Covering soil and bacteria management: First, take loam or burning soil under the grass on barren slopes for cover soil, and use it after exposure to the sun; second, cover the soil on the culture material of the bacterial bed after sowing, with a thickness of 0.8-1 cm, and spray lime The water makes the covering soil reach the maximum water content, but the water cannot leak into the culture material, and the pH value is adjusted to 8-9. Close 1/3 doors and windows. The relative humidity of the air is 90%, and the temperature is controlled at about 35°C. On the third day, the mycelium grows into the culture material, and the heap temperature begins to rise. It is necessary to open doors and windows in the morning and evening to ventilate and cool down, so that the center temperature of the culture material does not exceed 39 °C, so as to facilitate the cultivation of strong mycelium. Generally, the hyphae will be overgrown with the culture material after 9 days of inoculation.
Management and picking
9 to 10 days after sowing, young mushrooms with large needles appear, and the relative air humidity should be controlled at 85% to 95% at this time. Do not spray water in the young mushroom stage. When the relative humidity of the air is low as the mushroom body grows, it can be sprayed twice a day in the air: when the water content of the mushroom bed is low, water should be sprayed. Spray directly on the mushroom body. When straw mushrooms go from the needle stage to the elongation stage, they should be harvested in time, usually about 10 days after sowing. At this time, pay attention to the ventilation of the film. When the fruiting is long, pour water in the aisle to moisturise and cool down. If the temperature and humidity are suitable, the film should be removed and ventilated to prevent the death of mushroom buds due to high temperature. If the bed is too dry, you can dig a small pit on the edge of the shed, cover it with film, put it in cold water, and spray the bed surface after preheating. Harvest 2 to 3 days after budding, 4 to 5 days per tide mushroom, 2 to 3 times a day. Every 3 to 5 days, the second tide mushrooms are produced. Generally, 3 to 4 tide mushrooms can be harvested, and the whole mushroom picking period is 20 to 25 days.

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